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CAUSES OF CONCRETE FAILURE

Corrosion is not the only source of failure. Many other sources cause deterioration on reinforced concrete structures; this must be kept in mind and understood well when an inspection is undertaken.

These sources of failure include:

• Unsuitable materials

• Unsound aggregate

• Reactive aggregate

• Contaminated aggregate

• Using the wrong type of cement

• Cement manufacturer error

• Wrong type of admixture

• Substandard admixture

• Contaminated admixture

• Organically contaminated water

• Chemically contaminated water

• Wrong kind of reinforcement

• Size error of steel bars

• Improper workmanship

• Faulty design

• Incorrect concrete mixture (low or high cement content and incorrect admixture dosage)

• Unstable formwork

• Misplaced reinforcement

• Error in handling and placing concrete (segregation, bad placing, and inadequate compacting)

• curing incomplete

• Environmental factors

• Soil alkali

• Seawater or sewage

• Acid industry

• freezing and thawing

• Structural factors

• Load exceeding design

• Accident as ballast load or dropped object

• Earthquake load

 

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